We study the specific energy consumption for the production of nitrogen fertilizers and the various options that are available to reduce this consumption. The average energy consumption for ammonia production (by means of steam reforming of natural gas) in 1988 was 33.5 GJ/ton (LHV). The technical energy savings potential for the year 2000 is 16% [the specific energy consumption thus falls to 28.0 GJ/ton (LHV)]. The profitable energy savings potential is a potential saving of 6% with a payback period of less than three years. The thermodynamic minimum energy consumption using the steam reforming route is 19.1 GJ/ton (LHV). We calculate the effect that savings in ammonia production will have on the energy required for the production of several types of N-fertilizers (urea, nitric acid, ammonium nitrate, and CAN).