Many strategies have been adopted to improve thermal degradation of phosphors. Because of the stability and high transmittance of graphene, here we report a novel method of carbon coating on BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+ (BAM) phosphor particles through chemical vapor deposition. The chemical composition, microstructure, and luminescence performance of carbon-coated BAM were characterized carefully. This coating can be controlled within 3-10 atomic layers, depending on the reaction time. Because of the decrease of surface defects and the effective weakening effect of oxidizing Eu2+ to Eu3+ after carbon coating, different layer numbers showed an obvious effect on the optical properties of carbon-coated BAM. Carbon-coated BAM phosphors had higher emission intensity and better oxidation resistance at high temperature than uncoated BAM phosphors. These results indicate that the method of carbon coating on phosphor particles is a promising way to improve the luminescence properties of other phosphors used in lighting and display devices.