Epoch-Based Height Reference System for Sea Level Rise Impact Assessment on the Coast of Peninsular Malaysia

Sanusi Cob, Majid Kadir*, Rene Forsberg, Wim Simons, Marc Naeije, Ami Hassan Din, Husaini Yacob, Asyran Amat, Daud Mahdzur, More Authors

*Corresponding author for this work

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The Peninsular Malaysia Geodetic Vertical Datum 2000 (PMGVD2000) inherited several deficiencies due to offsets between local datums used, levelling error propagations, land subsidence, sea level rise, and sea level slopes along the southern half of the Malacca Strait on the west coast and the South China Sea in the east coast of the Peninsular relative to the Port Klang (PTK) datum point. To cater for a more reliable elevation-based assessment of both sea level rise and coastal flooding exposure, a new epoch-based height reference system PMGVD2022 has been developed. We have undertaken the processing of more than 30 years of sea level data from twelve tide gauge (TG) stations along the Peninsular Malaysia coast for the determination of the relative mean sea level (RMSL) at epoch 2022.0 with their respective trends and incorporates the quantification of the local vertical land motion (VLM) impact. PMGVD2022 is based on a new gravimetric geoid (PMGeoid2022) fitted to the RMSL at PTK. The orthometric height is realised through the GNSS levelling concept H = hGNSS–Nfit_PTK–NRMDT, where NRMDT is a constant offset due to the relative mean dynamic ocean topography (RMDT) between the fitted geoid at PTK and the local MSL datums along the Peninsular Malaysia coast. PMGVD2022 will become a single height reference system with absolute accuracies of better than ±3 cm and ±10 cm across most of the land/coastal area and the continental shelf of Peninsular Malaysia, respectively.

Original languageEnglish
Article number6179
Number of pages34
JournalRemote Sensing
Issue number23
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • airborne geoid mapping
  • epoch-based vertical datum
  • mean dynamic ocean topography
  • mean sea level rise
  • vertical land motion


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