Evaluating performance of selected vehicle following models using trajectory data under mixed traffic conditions

Narayana Raju, Shriniwas Arkatkar, Gaurang Joshi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)


This research work is focused on modeling vehicle following behavior under mixed traffic conditions. Vehicle-following behavior can be potentially utilized in building real-time drivers’ assistance systems or identifying collision escaping time thresholds for varying roadway and traffic conditions. For this purpose, initially, vehicular trajectory data was developed over the road sections in India. Thereafter, based on hysteresis phenomenon among the vehicles, vehicles in the following conditions are identified. Further to model the following the behavior of vehicles, selected car-following models, such as Wiedemann-74, Wiedemann-99, Gipps, Bando and Intelligent Driver Model (IDM) are calibrated for followers (subject vehicle) from each vehicle category. The model’s validity is tested by comparing the observed position and modeled position of the follower under varying conditions. Subsequently, to test the car-following model’s efficacy in replicating the following behavior, simulation runs were performed using VISSIM 9.0. For this purpose, the car following models (other than Wiedemann models) were coded in VISSIM using external driving behavior program. The models were then tested using calibrated vehicle-dependent following-behavior parameters. Based on the simulation runs, the comparison was made with derived traffic parameters for macroscopic validation. For better understanding hysteresis plots were also compared for different vehicle-following models, using simulated trajectory data. Further, simulated hysteresis for different vehicle types was compared with related plots made using actual trajectory data. It was well-established that psychophysical models (Wiedemann), multi-regime (Gipps), and IDM car-following models resemble Indian traffic behavior reasonably well, whereas single-regime car-following model, optimal velocity model fails in replicating the actual following-behavior.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)617-634
Number of pages18
JournalJournal of Intelligent Transportation Systems: technology, planning, and operations
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • calibration
  • car following models
  • heterogeneous traffic
  • hysteresis
  • leader–follower pairs
  • simulation
  • trajectory


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