Evaluation of haptic and visual cues for repulsive or attractive guidance in nonholonomic steering tasks

Roel J. Kuiper, Dennis J F Heck, Irene A. Kuling, David A. Abbink

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)


Remote control of vehicles is a difficult task for operators. Support systems that present additional task information may assist operators, but their usefulness is expected to depend on several factors such as 1) the nature of conveyed information, 2) what modality it is conveyed through, and 3) the task difficulty. In an exploratory experiment, these three factors were manipulated to quantify their effects on operator behavior. Subjects ( n = 15 ) used a haptic manipulator to steer a virtual nonholonomic vehicle through abstract environments, in which obstacles needed to be avoided. Both a simple support conveying near-future predictions of the trajectory of the vehicle and a more elaborate support that continuously suggests the path to be taken were designed (factor 1). These types of information were offered either with visual or haptic cues (factor 2). These four support systems were tested in four different abstracted environments with decreasing amount of allowed variability in realized trajectories (factor 3). The results show improvements for the simple support only when this information was presented visually, but not when offered haptically. For the elaborate support, equally large improvements for both modalities were found. This suggests that the elaborate support is better: additional information is key in improving performance in nonholonomic steering tasks.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7484344
Pages (from-to)672-683
JournalIEEE Transactions on Human-Machine Systems
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2016


  • Guidance forces
  • haptic feedback
  • haptic shared control
  • nonholonomic steering
  • potential fields
  • teleoperation
  • visual support


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