Experimental and Discrete Element Method Analysis of Galvanized Steel Scrap Particles Along and After an Inclined Chute

Evangelos Georgakopoulos, Ashkan Hosseini*, Timothy Kerry, Johannes Hage, Koen Meijer, Erik Offerman, Yongxiang Yang

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
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HIsarna is a novel ironmaking process with great raw materials versatility that is attractive for various secondary resources. Among the materials that can be recycled, there is steel scrap which is fed to the furnace bath through an inclined chute. The velocity distribution of the scrap particles along the chute affects the particles’ distribution on the liquid slag and, thereupon, the efficient operation of the reactor. In this study, the flow of steel scrap particles along an inclined chute with the same dimensions as those of the actual chute of the HIsarna plant is investigated experimentally and numerically. The simulations are validated using chute tip velocity and mass fractions collected at the different compartments of a sampling device. Translational and angular velocity distributions along and across the chute are reported, and the effect of different parameters are investigated. The impact of the shape of the particles on the simulation process is found to be negligible. The angular velocity distribution in cross-sections of the chute exhibited a V-shaped orientation, whereas the translational velocity displayed similar values across the cross-sections. Moreover, translational velocity appeared to increase with increasing inclination angles, whereas angular velocity increased with decreasing batch size.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2200075
Number of pages16
JournalSteel Research International
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • discrete element methods
  • granular flow
  • HIsarna Ironmaking
  • steel scrap chute
  • steel scrap flowability


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  • CFD Modelling of HIsarna Off-gas System

    Hosseini, A., 2023, 281 p.

    Research output: ThesisDissertation (TU Delft)

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