Experimental characterisation of textile compaction response: A benchmark exercise

A. X.H. Yong*, A. Aktas, A. Endruweit, S. V. Lomov, S. Advani, B. Caglar, C. Dransfeld, K. Masania, S. van Oosterom, More Authors

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

23 Citations (Scopus)


This paper reports the results of an international benchmark exercise on the measurement of fibre bed compaction behaviour. The aim was to identify aspects of the test method critical to obtain reliable results and to arrive at a recommended test procedure for fibre bed compaction measurements. A glass fibre 2/2 twill weave and a biaxial (±45°) glass fibre non-crimp fabric (NCF) were tested in dry and wet conditions. All participants used the same testing procedure but were allowed to use the testing frame, the fixture and sample geometry of their choice. The results showed a large scatter in the maximum compaction stress between participants at the given target thickness, with coefficients of variation ranging from 38% to 58%. Statistical analysis of data indicated that wetting of the specimen significantly affected the scatter in results for the woven fabric, but not for the NCF. This is related to the fibre mobility in the architectures in both fabrics. As isolating the effect of other test parameters on the results was not possible, no statistically significant effect of other test parameters could be proven. The high sensitivity of the recorded compaction pressure near the minimum specimen thickness to changes in specimen thickness suggests that small uncertainties in thickness can result in large variations in the maximum value of the compaction stress. Hence, it is suspected that the thickness measurement technique used may have an effect on the scatter.

Original languageEnglish
Article number106243
JournalComposites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing
Publication statusPublished - 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • A. Fabric/textiles
  • Compressibility
  • D. Mechanical testing


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