Experimental observations on impact velocity and entrapped air for standing wave impacts on vertical hydraulic structures with overhangs

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Abstract

This study focusses on increasing the understanding on vertical hydraulic structures with relatively short overhangs subjected to standing wave impacts. To this end, the impact velocity and the entrapped air are studied in detail, given their influence on the impulsive loading characteristics and consequently on the structural dynamic response. This study is based on regular wave laboratory experimental data obtained for relatively short overhangs with respect to the wave length and with respect to the overhang height. The laboratory tests illustrate the complex wave hydrodynamics before the wave impacts, influenced by the incident wave conditions and structural characteristics. Regarding the impact velocity, the experimental measurements with a wall wave gauge in the tests without overhangs show that the maximum upward velocities deviate from linear wave theory between +5.5% and +13.0%, while the zero-crossing upward velocities deviate from linear wave theory between +1.9% and +7.0%. The zero-crossing upward velocities estimated from third order wave theory deviate from the linear wave theory between +1.8% and +4.7%. In the tests with overhangs, the maximum upward velocity below the overhang estimated by camera recording measurements deviates from linear wave theory between −11.8% and +13.4%. It was also found that when considering the experimental impact velocity from camera recordings in the tests with overhangs, the mean effective bounce-back factor β deviates relatively little from when linear wave theory is used (≈1%), while the uncertainty described by the standard deviation increases significantly (≈35%). Regarding the entrapped air, it is shown that the interaction between incident wave parameters and structural configurations leads to a large variation in the entrapped air area, up to a factor of 5.7 for shorter overhangs and a factor of 9.5 for longer overhangs. This variability in entrapped air characteristics leads to significant effects on the loading on the structure, as observed by the variability on pressure measurements. The experimental results showed increasing impact durations and increasing effective bounce-back factor β in the tests with increasing entrapped air dimensions. This study highlights the importance of the details of the impact velocity and entrapped air for load estimations during the design of vertical hydraulic structures exposed to standing wave impacts. This is particularly important for thin structures such as steel gates which are susceptible to a dynamic behaviour under such impulsive loads.
Original languageEnglish
Article number857
Pages (from-to)1-20
Number of pages20
JournalJournal of Marine Science and Engineering
Volume8
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2020

Keywords

  • Entrapped air
  • Impact velocity
  • Impulsive loading
  • Overhangs
  • Wave impacts

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