In blast furnaces, particles like coke, sinter and pellets enter from a hopper and are distributed on the burden surface by a rotating chute. Such particulate flows suffer occasionally from particle segregation during transportation caused by differences in density or size. To get a more fundamental insight into these effects, we started an experimental study to investigate the effect of rotation on such particulate flows.Here, as a first step, we present an experimental study of granular flow of monodisperse 3. mm spherical glass particles flowing with a constant mass rate through a rotating smooth rectangular chute, which is inclined at a fixed angle. Experiments are performed for a sufficiently long time to study steady (but streamwise accelerating) flow. Particle image velocimetry (PIV), electronic ultrasonic height sensors, and a dynamic weighing scale are used to measure the surface velocity of the particle stream, the particle bed height and mass flow rate in the chute, respectively. The influence of rotation speed and angle of inclination of the chute is studied. We find an interesting interplay between the Coriolis force, which pushes the granular flow to the sidewall of the chute and tends to diminish the acceleration of the flow, and centrifugal forces that accelerate the flow. The velocity components display a complex dependence on the spanwise and streamwise position in the chute. The bed height in the chute is also influenced by these effects of system rotation. These measurements provide a well-defined set of observations for refining and validating computer simulations of granular flows, and point out some important limitations of physical experiments. We present preliminary three-dimensional discrete particle simulations, which show that the experimental measurements of bed height and surface particle velocity in a chute inclined at 30° can be predicted nearly quantitatively both without and with rotation of the chute.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors wish to acknowledge STW for their financial support. We would like to thank O. Bokhove, A.R. Thornton and D.R. Tunuguntla for the stimulating discussions. We thank L. McAlpine and A.P.C. Holten for their technical support.
- Coriolis forces
- Discrete particle simulation
- Dry granular flow
- Particle image velocimetry
- Rotating chute