Experimental study on ice-structure interaction phenomena of vertically sided structures

Marnix van den Berg, Cody C. Owen, Hayo Hendrikse*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)
19 Downloads (Pure)


This study analyses the results from basin tests with a vertically sided cylindrical pile loaded by ice failing in crushing. Tests were performed with a ‘rigid’ structure and with structural models representing a series of single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) oscillators covering a wide range of mass, frequency, and damping values. The structural models were represented by a real-time hybrid test setup, which combined physical and numerical components to measure real ice forces, apply the forces to a numerical structural model, and simulate the dynamics of the tested structural models in real-time. The test results are analysed and simple numerical simulations are performed to assess the relevance of several ice force characteristics observed from the ‘rigid’ structure tests to the ice-induced vibrations in the SDOF oscillators. The results from the rigid structure tests show that the median ice forcing frequency is linearly related to the ice drift speed. The mean and standard deviation of the ice forces on the rigid structure show a negative force-velocity gradient at low ice drift speeds and indications of a positive force-velocity gradient at higher ice drift speeds. The comparison of experimental results to the simulations of the single-degree-of-freedom oscillator tests shows that the positive force-velocity gradient at higher ice drift speeds allows to best capture the dynamics during continuous brittle crushing as observed in the experiments. Furthermore, the comparison shows that frequency lock-in initiation is primarily driven by the velocity-independent spatial frequency spectrum of the ice force signal. The added damping caused by the positive force-velocity gradient must be considered to capture the frequency lock-in initiation speeds measured in the constant deceleration experiments. The consideration of the negative force-velocity gradient at low relative velocities is not needed to capture these frequency lock-in initiation speeds as observed in the experiments. However, once frequency lock-in is initiated, the negative gradient is needed to correctly capture the dynamics during frequency lock-in. Analysis of the results shows that the peak forces during intermittent crushing at the end of the load build-up phase have a dependence on relative velocity equal to the load dependence on velocity of rigid structures at low speed. This indicates that intermittent crushing is not a purely brittle type of interaction.
Original languageEnglish
Article number103628
Number of pages15
JournalCold Regions Science and Technology
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • Continuous brittle crushing
  • Frequency lock-in
  • Intermittent crushing
  • Ice-induced vibrations
  • Ice basin tests
  • Real-time hybrid testing


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