Experimental validation of a new method for 3-D vector flow imaging in the frequency domain

S. Rossi, F. Fool, A. Ramalli, P. Tortoli

Research output: Chapter in Book/Conference proceedings/Edited volumeConference contributionScientificpeer-review


Current 3-D Vector Flow Imaging (VFI) techniques are typically limited by either low temporal resolution and/or high computational cost. In this work, we illustrate a 3-D high frame rate VFI method, which efficiently splits the 3-D (x, y, z) displacement estimation in two separate 2-D VFI estimations operated in the frequency domain. The echo-data received after the transmission of plane waves are beamformed and high-pass filtered before being VFI processed. The new method was experimentally tested by using the ULA-OP 256 research system connected to a 3 MHz, 256-element, 2-D spiral array. Phantom experiments were conducted in steady laminar flow conditions for different probe-to-flow angles. For the tested conditions, the mean relative bias was 11.5% with a standard deviation of 10.9%. The 2-step approach applied to the 2-D VFI technique makes the new 3-D VFI method accurate and computationally efficient.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationIUS 2020 - International Ultrasonics Symposium, Proceedings
Place of PublicationPiscataway, NJ, USA
Number of pages3
ISBN (Electronic)9781728154480
Publication statusPublished - 2020
Event2020 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium, IUS 2020 - Las Vegas, United States
Duration: 7 Sep 202011 Sep 2020

Publication series

NameIEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium, IUS
ISSN (Print)1948-5719
ISSN (Electronic)1948-5727


Conference2020 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium, IUS 2020
CountryUnited States
CityLas Vegas


  • 3-D
  • Frequency domain
  • High-frame-rate
  • Plane wave
  • Sparse arrays
  • Spiral arrays
  • Ultrasound
  • Vector Doppler
  • Vector velocity imaging


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