Exploring the use of Extended Reality for user experience design in product-service systems

Research output: ThesisDissertation (TU Delft)

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This dissertation aims to explore the use of extended reality (XR) as an approach to developing user experience (UX) for product-service systems. It included eight chapters to explore the research question: “How can designers use extended reality to develop the user experience for product-service systems?”

Chapter 1 introduces three immersive experiences in user experience studies as examples and explains three relevant research topics - Product-service systems, User Experience, and Extended Reality. By reviewing the XR applications in both in design practices and in literature, the author proposed e the aim, the research question, and six sub-questions of this dissertation, followed by the explanation on theoretical backgrounds and research methodologies.

Chapter 2 answers sub-question 1 about the essence of immersive experience from users’ and designers’ viewpoints, thus proposes a user-centered model of immersive experience from literature and case analysis; then the author maps currently available XR platforms concerning the categories of experiences.

Chapter 3 firstly answers the sub-question 2 by reviewing state-of-the-art XR technologies for UX studies; then the author proposes a process to prototype experiences via XR to develop positive experiences for product-service systems.

Chapter 4 investigates three case studies to understand how to ideate concepts via
XR at the early design stage, specifically in conceptualization. In addition, the studies also compare the influence of different viewpoints and ways of interaction on the perception of “being comfortable”.

Chapter 5 examines how to assess experiences via XR across user groups and
concentrates on competence-related experiences. This chapter contains three case studies in the context of true-to-life surgical training where a successful surgery depends both on proficient psycho-motor skills and mature self-management of surgeons. In addition, these studies also observe the influences of proficiency, cultural backgrounds, and technology familiarity on the perception of competencies.

Chapter 6 scrutinizes how to facilitate remote collaboration via XR. This chapter
covers two studies in the context of remote teamwork. Given relatedness as a universal need, these studies focus on the influences of different interfaces, either immersive or non-immersive, on the perception of the co-location, as well as task loads, usability, and presence.

Chapter 7 first reviews the lessons learned from the case studies and then probes how design teams integrate immersive experiences into their practices. Hence, four co-creation studies were developed which are in line with the conceptual process in Chapter 3. Section 7.2 to Section 7.5 focus on designer's intention, designerly thinking, prototyping, and co-design via XR respectively.

Chapter 8 reflects on each sub-question from an overarching perspective, and then summarizes three sets of recommendations for design stakeholders who are interested in integrating immersive experiences in their work. This chapter then envisions a concept of a co-design community via immersion - ‘Design Metaverse’. At the end, the limitations of this work are discussed, as well as future research directions.
Original languageEnglish
QualificationDoctor of Philosophy
Awarding Institution
  • Delft University of Technology
  • van Eijk, D.J., Supervisor
  • Albayrak, A., Advisor
Thesis sponsors
Award date20 Dec 2023
Print ISBNs978-94-93353-48-0
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • extended reality (XR)
  • user experience design
  • Product-Service Systems (PSS)


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