Extending Winding Function Theory to Incorporate Secondary Effects in the Design of Induction Machines and Drives

Baoyun Ge, Wenbo Liu, Jianning Dong, Mingda Liua

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)
66 Downloads (Pure)


High-performance electric drive applications necessitate a high fidelity model to predict the terminal characteristics of machines in the design stage to fulfill a system-level evaluation together with the converters. This article interprets winding function theory (WFT) from the field perspective and incorporates secondary effects, such as slotting and iron nonlinearity into it to accurately predict the main flux linkage in induction machines. The method is centered on resolving the magnetic scalar potential on the two sides of the air gap and computes the flux linkage via a winding function. Its performance is benchmarked against 2-D finite-element analysis (FEA) and the state-of-the-art magnetic equivalent circuit (MEC) method. Flux linkage and torque results indicate that the relative error is within 3.1% even in a highly saturated region when comparing to FEA, while MEC using the same circuit network may present a 20% error.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1915-1924
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2022

Bibliographical note

Green Open Access added to TU Delft Institutional Repository ‘You share, we take care!’ – Taverne project https://www.openaccess.nl/en/you-share-we-take-care
Otherwise as indicated in the copyright section: the publisher is the copyright holder of this work and the author uses the Dutch legislation to make this work public.


  • Air gaps
  • Flux Linkage
  • Iron
  • Magnetic Circuit Network
  • Magnetic circuits
  • Rotors
  • Saturation Effect
  • Saturation magnetization
  • Slot Effect
  • Stator windings
  • Winding Function Theory
  • Windings


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