Factors influencing consumer acceptance of vehicle-to-grid by electric vehicle drivers in the Netherlands

K.H.J. van Heuveln, R. Ghotge, J.A. Annema, Esther van Bergen, G.P. van Wee, U. Pesch

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The objective of this study is to identify factors that influence actual electric vehicle (EV) drivers’ acceptance of Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) charging. The study takes a qualitative approach in order to provide insight into actual EV users’ perceptions of V2G technology and their underlying motivation to accept or not accept V2G. The Theory of Planned Behaviour is adopted to create a basic conceptual model of the potential factors influencing users’ acceptance of V2G. Twenty semi-structured interviews are conducted among Dutch EV drivers, including both regular EV drivers, as well as participants who had previously taken part in V2G projects. The factors that are found to be most important for fostering acceptance are financial compensation, transparent communication and reliable control of the system by the user. On the other hand, the factors that are found to have a negative effect on acceptance are range anxiety, discomfort experienced while participating and battery degradation. Our study shows that the majority of our interview participants accept V2G albeit with some reservations and caution. As EVs and V2G are new technologies, our sample of twenty actual EV users consists of early adopters. As such, their attitudes may not reflect those of the majority of future users. However, our study suggests that there are EV users who are willing to use V2G charge points and will continue to do so. The reasons behind such user acceptance are further described in the study together with additional insights and ideas for future research.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)34-45
JournalTravel Behaviour and Society
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • vehicle-to-grid
  • V2G
  • consumer acceptance
  • Theory of planned behaviour


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