Fast Active Power-Frequency Support Methods by Large Scale Electrolyzers for Multi-Energy Systems

Nidarshan Veerakumar, Zameer Ahmad, M. Ebrahim Adabi , José Rueda Torres, Peter Palensky, Mart van der Meijden, Francisco Gonzalez-Longatt

Research output: Chapter in Book/Conference proceedings/Edited volumeConference contributionScientificpeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)
64 Downloads (Pure)


This paper presents a comparative assessment of fast active power regulation (FAPR) control strategies implemented on megawatt-scale controllable electrolysers, with the goal of achieving enhanced frequency support during large active power imbalances that lead to major under-frequency deviations. The FAPR control strategies consist of three different types of controllers, namely, droop, derivative and Virtual Synchronous Power (VSP). Each of these controllers has been implemented on a 300 MW electrolyser plant with proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolysers. The compared FAPR controllers are individually set to perform a fast adjustment of the active power consumption of the plant-based on the dynamic grid conditions. The modelling and comparative assessment is done in a platform for computationally efficient simulations of Electromagnetic Transients (EMT) in real-time. A synthetic model of the Northern Netherlands Network (N3 Network) is prototyped as a test bench to simulate and evaluate the performance of the implemented FAPR controllers. The EMT simulations show the superiority of the VSP based FAPR developed for controlling and exploiting the boundaries for active power adjustment of the Voltage Source Converter (VSC) that interfaces the PEM electrolyser plant with the N3 Network.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication2020 IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Europe (ISGT-Europe)
Subtitle of host publicationProceedings
Number of pages5
ISBN (Electronic)978-1-7281-7100-5
ISBN (Print)978-1-7281-7101-2
Publication statusPublished - 2020
Event10th IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Europe, ISGT-Europe 2020 - Virtual/online event due to COVID-19, Delft, Netherlands
Duration: 26 Oct 202028 Oct 2020
Conference number: 10


Conference10th IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Europe, ISGT-Europe 2020
Abbreviated titleISGT-Europe 2020
OtherVirtual/online event due to COVID-19
Internet address

Bibliographical note

Green Open Access added to TU Delft Institutional Repository ‘You share, we take care!’ – Taverne project
Otherwise as indicated in the copyright section: the publisher is the copyright holder of this work and the author uses the Dutch legislation to make this work public.


  • Frequency Droop and Derivative Controller
  • VSP Controller
  • Inertia emulation
  • RTDS
  • PEM Electrolyser


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