Feasibility Study on the Radiation Dose by Radioactive Magnetic Core-Shell Nanoparticles for Open-Source Brachytherapy

R. van Oossanen*, Jeremy Godart, J.M.C. Brown, A. Maier, Jean-Philippe Pignol, A.G. Denkova, K. Djanashvili, G.C. van Rhoon

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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Background: Treatment of early-stage breast cancer currently includes surgical removal of the tumor and (partial) breast irradiation of the tumor site performed at fractionated dose. Although highly effective, this treatment is exhaustive for both patient and clinic. In this study, the theoretical potential of an alternative treatment combining thermal ablation with low dose rate (LDR) brachytherapy using radioactive magnetic nanoparticles (RMNPs) containing 103-palladium was researched. Methods: The radiation dose characteristics and emission spectra of a single RMNP were calculated, and dose distributions of a commercial brachytherapy seed and an RMNP brachytherapy seed were simulated using Geant4 Monte Carlo toolkit. Results: It was found that the RMNP seeds deliver a therapeutic dose similar to currently used commercial seed, while the dose distribution shows a spherical fall off compared to the more inhomogeneous dose distribution of the commercial seed. Changes in shell thickness only changed the dose profile between 2 × 10−4 mm and 3 × 10−4 mm radial distance to the RMNP, not effecting long-range dose. Conclusion: The dose distribution of the RMNP seed is comparable with current commercial brachytherapy seeds, while anisotropy of the dose distribution is reduced. Because this reduces the dependency of the dose distribution on the orientation of the seed, their surgical placement is easier. This supports the feasibility of the clinical application of the proposed novel treatment modality.
Original languageEnglish
Article number5497
Number of pages13
Issue number22
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • magnetic nanoparticles
  • magnetic hyperthermia
  • brachytherapy
  • Monte Carlo simulations
  • thermal ablation
  • dual-function nanoparticles


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