Feed-forward ALINEA: A ramp metering control algorithm for nearby and distant bottlenecks

Jose Ramon D. Frejo, Bart De Schutter

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


This paper proposes a new ramp metering control algorithm, Feed-Foward ALINEA (FF-ALINEA), for bottlenecks located both nearby on an on-ramp and further away from it (i.e., more than just a few hundred meters). The formulation of the controller is based on a feed-forward modification of the well-known control algorithm for ramp metering, ALINEA. The feed-forward structure allows anticipating the future evolution of the bottleneck density in order to avoid or reduce traffic breakdowns. The proposed controller is tested, using the macroscopic traffic flow model METANET, for nine scenarios, and the results are compared with the ones obtained with ALINEA, PI-ALINEA, and with the optimal solution. The simulations show that the FF-ALINEA is able to approach the optimal behavior, thereby outperforming ALINEA and PI-ALINEA. Moreover, results indicate that the FF-ALINEA is quite robust in cases where different demands are considered, there are a limited number of available detectors, or there are errors in the estimation of the capacity and/or the critical density of the bottleneck.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2448-2458
JournalIEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Volume20 (July 2019)
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 2018


  • Detectors
  • feed-forward control
  • freeway traffic control.
  • Intelligent transportation systems
  • Mathematical model
  • Meters
  • Pollution measurement
  • Ramp metering
  • Robustness
  • Traffic control

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