## Abstract

One of the main problems in computational physics is predicting the low-energy behavior of many-body quantum systems. The computational complexity of this problem, however, is relatively poorly understood. A recent major progress in this direction has been the no low-energy trivial states (NLTS) theorem; it gives a family of qubit Hamiltonians whose low-energy states cannot be reached by shallow quantum circuits. In this work we provide a fermionic counterpart to this theorem, constructing local fermionic Hamiltonians with no low-energy trivial states. Distinct from the qubit case, we define trivial states via finite-depth fermionic quantum circuits. We further strengthen the result, allowing free access to (generally, deep) Gaussian fermionic circuits into our notion of a trivial state. The desired fermionic Hamiltonian can be constructed using any qubit Hamiltonian which has the NLTS property via well-spread distributions over bitstrings. We also define a fermionic analog of quantum probabilistically checkable proofs (PCPs) and explore the relation of fermionic PCP class with the qubit version.

Original language | English |
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Article number | 052431 |

Number of pages | 10 |

Journal | Physical Review A |

Volume | 109 |

Issue number | 5 |

DOIs | |

Publication status | Published - 2024 |