Finding Dangerous Waves-Review of Methods to Obtain Wave Impact Design Loads for Marine Structures

Sanne van Essen*, Harleigh Seyffert

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)
97 Downloads (Pure)


Green water and slamming wave impacts can lead to severe damage or operability issues for marine structures. It is therefore essential to consider their probability and loads in design. This is difficult, as impacts are both hydrodynamically complex and relatively rare. The complexity requires high-fidelity modeling (experiments or CFD), whereas a statistically sound analysis of rare events requires long durations. High-fidelity tools are too demanding to run a Monte-Carlo simulation; low-fidelity tools do not include sufficient physical details. The use of extreme value theory and/or multi-fidelity modeling is therefore required. The present paper reviews the state-of-the-art methods to find wave impact design loads, which include response-conditioning methods, screening methods, and adaptive sampling methods. Their benefits and shortcomings are discussed, as well as challenges for the wave impact problem. One challenge is the role of wave non-linearity. Another is the validation of the different methods; it is hard to obtain long-duration high-fidelity wave impact data.

Original languageEnglish
Article number060801
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • computational mechanics and design
  • design of offshore structures
  • dynamics of structures
  • fluid-structure interaction
  • hydrodynamics
  • ocean waves and associated statistics
  • offshore safety and reliability
  • probabilistic model of forces and motions
  • probability and spectral wave modeling
  • reliability based codes and guidelines
  • wave effects
  • wave mechanics


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