Flexibility Framework With Recovery Guarantees for Aggregated Energy Storage Devices

Michael Evans, Simon H. Tindemans*, David Angeli

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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This paper proposes a framework for the procurement of flexibility reserve from aggregated storage fleets. It allows for arbitrary tree structures of aggregation hierarchy, as well as easily implementable disaggregation via broadcast dispatch. By coupling discharge and recovery modes, the proposed framework enables full-cycle capacity to be procured ahead of real time, with guaranteed recovery and exact accounting for losses. The set of feasible discharging requests is exactly encoded, so that there is no reduction in the ability to meet discharging signals, and recovery capabilities are parameterized as a single virtual battery. Included in this paper is a numerical demonstration of the construction of the constituent curves of the framework and the approach is also benchmarked against relevant alternatives.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9772074
Pages (from-to)3519 - 3531
Number of pages13
JournalIEEE Transactions on Smart Grid
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2022

Bibliographical note

Green Open Access added to TU Delft Institutional Repository ‘You share, we take care!’ – Taverne project https://www.openaccess.nl/en/you-share-we-take-care
Otherwise as indicated in the copyright section: the publisher is the copyright holder of this work and the author uses the Dutch legislation to make this work public.


  • Flexibility
  • aggregation
  • virtual power plant
  • energy storage systems
  • optimal control
  • ancillary service
  • virtual battery


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