We investigated the volcanic Narlı Lake in Central Anatolia combining high-resolution bathymetry and geochemical measurements. In this study, we present it as proof of a new concept to verify fluid pathways beneath lakes integrating the structure of the geothermal reservoir into the surrounding tectonic frame. We recognized dextral faults fracturing inherited volcanic formations and thus generating highly permeable zones beneath the lake. At intersection points of faults, reservoir fluids discharge from deep holes as imaged by the high-resolution bathymetry at the bottom of the Narlı Lake. Onshore, the tectonic setting also generates both extensional and compressional structures. Extensional structures result in extensive fluid discharge through hot springs while compressional structures do not discharge any fluid. The water of the lake as well as in the hot springs is highly saline and has relatively high concentrations of Cl, HCO3, SO4, Na, Ca, Mg, and Si. In several hot springs, we observed mixtures of high-saline fluids having a deep origin and low-saline shallow groundwater. We observed discharge into the lake by gas bubbles, which contain probably CO2 or H2S. Mineral precipitation indicates a carbonatic source at the lake bottom and along the shoreline. Extensive travertine precipitation also occurs near hot springs along the nearby extensional zone of Ihlara Valley. In summary, the composition of fluids and minerals is controlled by water–rock interaction through the volcanic and carbonatic rocks beneath this volcanic lake.