Force and water jet impact reduction on adjacent structures by means of free surface breakwaters

K. J. Holkema, C. Aalbers, P. R. Wellens*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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In head waves, water jet impacts due to run up can occur as a result of the structural configuration of some floating structures, reducing workability. Wave attenuation near the floater may reduce the risk of water jet impacts. This paper presents a numerical study of the performance and attenuation mechanisms of various plate type fixed free surface breakwaters and their ability to prevent water jet impacts on adjacent structures. Simulations are performed in two dimensions with a numerical method based on the Navier–Stokes equations in the presence of a free surface. The breakwater models are evaluated in two irregular sea states in terms of wave transmission, reflection and energy dissipation and by their ability to reduce water jets impacts on adjacent structures. A 60 degree inclined plate is found to induce a large wave energy reduction, little wave transmission and reflection and to experience little wave loading while effectively reducing water jet impacts.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)67-80
Number of pages14
JournalInternational Shipbuilding Progress
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • CFD
  • floating breakwater
  • jet formation
  • plate breakwater
  • VOF
  • Wave impact


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