With the recent adoption of millimeter-wave spectrum in cellular communications, deployment of active antenna arrays and use of beamforming become vital to compensate for the increased path loss. However, directional high-frequency signals may suffer heavy attenuations due to blockage effects. Therefore, blockage modelling that adequately incorporates the effects of beamforming becomes increasingly relevant. We propose a Four Knife-Edge Diffraction with antenna Gain (4KED-G) model, a deterministic approach to model blockage with broad applicability. The 4KED-G model advances upon the existing models in its inclusion of both angular antenna gains and the diffraction from all the four edges of a rectangular screen blocker, leading to a more general and flexible blockage modelling approach compared to existing widely accepted blockage models. We theoretically show that the proposed generalised model incorporates the strengths of these existing models, while overcoming their shortcomings in establishing applicability to wider range of blockage scenarios. We validate the generalised model against known knife-edge diffraction blockage models for specific scenarios.
- Blockage modelling
- knife-edge diffraction