Free-breathing simultaneous T1, T2, and T2∗ quantification in the myocardium

Ingo Hermann*, Peter Kellman, Omer B. Demirel, Mehmet Akçakaya, Lothar R. Schad, Sebastian Weingärtner

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)
51 Downloads (Pure)


Purpose: To implement a free-breathing sequence for simultaneous quantification of (Formula presented.), (Formula presented.), and (Formula presented.) for comprehensive tissue characterization of the myocardium in a single scan using a multi-gradient-echo readout with saturation and (Formula presented.) preparation pulses. Methods: In the proposed Saturation And (Formula presented.) -prepared Relaxometry with Navigator-gating (SATURN) technique, a series of multi-gradient-echo (GRE) images with different magnetization preparations was acquired during free breathing. A total of 35 images were acquired in 26.5 ± 14.9 seconds using multiple saturation times and (Formula presented.) preparation durations and with imaging at 5 echo times. Bloch simulations and phantom experiments were used to validate a 5-parameter fit model for accurate relaxometry. Free-breathing simultaneous (Formula presented.), (Formula presented.), and (Formula presented.) measurements were performed in 10 healthy volunteers and 2 patients using SATURN at 3T and quantitatively compared to conventional single-parameter methods such as SASHA for (Formula presented.), (Formula presented.) -prepared bSSFP, and multi-GRE for (Formula presented.). Results: Simulations confirmed accurate fitting with the 5-parameter model. Phantom measurements showed good agreement with the reference methods in the relevant range for in vivo measurements. Compared to single-parameter methods comparable accuracy was achieved. SATURN produced in vivo parameter maps that were visually comparable to single-parameter methods. No significant difference between (Formula presented.), (Formula presented.), and (Formula presented.) times acquired with SATURN and single-parameter methods was shown in quantitative measurements (SATURN (Formula presented.), (Formula presented.), (Formula presented.); conventional methods: (Formula presented.), (Formula presented.), (Formula presented.); (Formula presented.)). Conclusion: SATURN enables simultaneous quantification of (Formula presented.), (Formula presented.), and (Formula presented.) in the myocardium for comprehensive tissue characterization with co-registered maps, in a single scan with good agreement to single-parameter methods.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1226-1240
Number of pages15
JournalMagnetic Resonance in Medicine
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • mapping
  • cardiac quantitative imaging
  • free-breathing
  • T2∗ mapping


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