Frequency Support of Fast-Multi-Energy Storage Systems in Low Rotational Inertia Scenarios

A. M. Ersdal, F. Gonzalez-Longatt, M. N. Acosta, J. L. Rueda, P. Palensky

Research output: Chapter in Book/Conference proceedings/Edited volumeConference contributionScientificpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)
17 Downloads (Pure)


Modern power systems are increasing the connection of power electronic converters (PECs), and new inertia-less technologies displace the synchronous generation units. Therefore, the total rotational system inertia is reduced, creating new problems related to the system frequency control and stability. Several mechanisms to enable the PECs with frequency sensible control loops have been proposed in the scientific literature. This paper considers the use of Fast-Acting Power Injections (FAPI), where the frequency-sensible control uses a frequency-active power (f-P) based on proportional and derivative control. The FAPI is obtained from PECs installed in a Fast-Multi-Energy Storage System (F-MESS), it consists of a flywheel storage system and supercapacitor storage system. The objective is to assess the frequency support provided by an F-MESS considering low rotational inertia scenarios. One additional contribution is a full detailed model using a set of differential-algebraic equation (DAE) in order to ensure an appropriate representation of all devices at the time that ensure scalability of the model in order to include new PEC-based technologies. Simulation results demonstrate the positive effect of the use of FAPI controllers in F-MESS to provide frequency support in low inertia scenarios.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication2020 IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Europe (ISGT-Europe)
Number of pages5
Publication statusPublished - 2020
Event10th IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Europe, ISGT-Europe 2020 - Virtual/online event due to COVID-19, Delft, Netherlands
Duration: 26 Oct 202028 Oct 2020
Conference number: 10


Conference10th IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Europe, ISGT-Europe 2020
Abbreviated titleISGT-Europe 2020
OtherVirtual/online event due to COVID-19
Internet address

Bibliographical note

"Green Open Access added to TU Delft Institutional Repository ‘You share, we take care!’ – Taverne project
Otherwise as indicated in the copyright section: the publisher is the copyright holder of this work and the author uses the Dutch legislation to make this work public."


  • Frequency Control
  • Low inertia
  • Multi-energy storage system
  • Nordic Power System


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