Fresh properties of limestone-calcined clay-slag cement pastes

Yu Chen*, Yu Zhang, Branko Šavija, Oguzhan Copuroglu

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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Formulation of quaternary blended system containing ordinary Portland cement or clinker, slag, limestone and calcined clay (LC2) appeared to be a viable approach to developing low-clinker cements without severely sacrificing mechanical performance at later ages. This paper investigates the effect of two material parameters, i.e., LC2-to-slag ratio and gypsum content, on fresh properties, hydration, and compressive strength of quaternary blended cement pastes (about 65 wt% of LC2 and slag in the binder). Results show that the increase in LC2 proportion decreased flowability and increased water retention capacity, yield stress, and plastic viscosity, as well as accelerated the evolution of stiffness with time (G′ growth). On the other hand, the addition of 2–4 wt% gypsum had little effect on most of the fresh properties. A new metric, the free water indicator, was proposed to describe the effect of free water content and the total specific surface area of binding materials. It correlated strongly with the growth of structural build-up metrics. Finally, adding gypsum delayed the aluminate peak and enhanced compressive strength only at 3 days, whereas increasing slag content reduced accumulated heat of hydration (7 days) but improved 28-day compressive strength. Therefore, adjusting LC2-to-slag ratio of the quaternary blended cement is a feasible way to meet requirements for fresh properties and compressive strength.
Original languageEnglish
Article number104962
JournalCement and Concrete Composites
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • Limestone and calcined clay
  • Slag
  • Fresh-state behaviors
  • Rheology
  • Water retention
  • Hydration
  • Compressive strength


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