From sediments to soils: changes in pore water metal bioavailability

Arjan J. Wijdeveld*, Cor A. Schipper, T.J. Heimovaara

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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Abstract: The use of sediments as soils is an area of interest for Beneficial Use of dredged sediments. In this study the impact of the transition from sediments to soils is researched by looking at the seasonal and long year (10 year) change in pore water metal chemistry of sediments which are considered clean (class A) according to the Dutch soil directive. This study is based on a combination of geohydrological, geochemical and ecotoxicological risk models and validated against measured pore water concentrations for metals over an dry/wet period. The pore water metal concentrations are compared against standards and expressed as at Risk Characterization Ratio’s (RCR) values. The RCR values are high (> 1) during the first 3 years after the application of sediments as soil, especially at the end of the summer. The multi substances Potentially Affected Fraction (ms-PAF) shows a similar trend as the RCR values, although it takes 5 years before the combined calculated potential ecotoxicity is below the legal 40% threshold level. Translated to land use, it is advised to restrict land use for farming on soils where these clean (class A) sediments are applied for a five-year transition period. Article Highlights: Beneficial Use of sediments should take into account the different conditions when used as soils.Use of sediments as soils lead to a predicable seasonal and multiple year trend in metal concentrations in pore water.The predicted results in metal pore water concentrations are translated into an advice for temporal land use.

Original languageEnglish
Article number145
Pages (from-to)1-15
Number of pages15
JournalSN Applied Sciences
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • Combined ecotoxicological risk of metals
  • Pore water chemistry of metals
  • Sediment transition


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