Numerous methods have been developed for ship collision prevention over the past decades. However, most studies are based on strong assumptions, such as the need for a constant velocity of the target-ship, the limitation to two-ship scenarios, the simplification of ships’ dynamics, etc. Generalized Velocity Obstacle (GVO) algorithm can bridge these gaps. This paper presents a GVO algorithm for ship collision avoidance and designs a collision avoidance system (GVO-CAS). The proposed system visualizes the changes of one ship's course and speed resulting in collisions, which can be used not only for supporting the officer on watch to prevent collisions, but also for collision prevention of Autonomous Surface Vessels (ASVs) and for human operators taking over the control of ASVs. Simulation experiments show that the proposed collision avoidance system can work properly in various maritime environments. Compared to the original Velocity Obstacle algorithm, the GVO algorithm is more reliable and suitable for close range ship collision avoidance. Moreover, the GVO-CAS can offer rule-compliant evasive actions with a minimum number of required actions for ships. These results show the great potential to use the GVO algorithm in both manned and unmanned ships at sea.
- Collision prevention
- COLREGs compliance
- Generalized velocity obstacle
- Ship dynamics model