Getting in the path of the robot: Pedestrians acceptance of crossing roads near fully automated vehicles

Sherrie Anne Kaye*, Xiaomeng Li, Oscar Oviedo-Trespalacios, O. Oviedo-Trespalacios, Amir Pooyan Afghari

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)
5 Downloads (Pure)


Adoption of Automated Vehicles (AVs) within transport networks relies on the technology acceptance of not only AV users, but also other road users such as pedestrians. However, previous research has mostly focused on user acceptance of AVs and the receptivity of pedestrians towards AVs has been largely unexplored. This study aims to fill this gap by applying the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), and the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) to investigate pedestrians’ intentions to cross a road in front of a fully AV. To achieve this goal, a 20-minute online questionnaire was administered in Australia and data were collected from a total of 485 participants (average age = 35.35 years, 51.5% female). Bivariate correlation analysis and hierarchical regression models were then applied on the data to investigate the association between pedestrian attributes and their behavioural intentions. The findings revealed that the TPB and the UTAUT explained 46% and 43% of the variance in intentions to cross a road in front of a fully AV, respectively, with perceived behavioural control (PBC) and subjective/social norms the most significant unique predictors of intentions within the TPB and UTAUT, respectively. The TAM, however, only explained 35% of the variance in intentions to cross a road in front of a fully AV. When added into Step 2 of the hierarchical regression, age accounted for additional variance above the TAM predictors, indicating that younger participants reported higher intentions to cross a road in front of a fully AV than older participants. Age was not a significant predictor of intentions when entered with the predictors of the TPB and UTAUT. This study provides support for the use of these theoretical models to understand pedestrians’ acceptance of AVs.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-8
Number of pages8
JournalTravel Behaviour and Society
Publication statusPublished - 2021

Bibliographical note

Accepted Author Manuscript


  • Automated vehicles
  • Pedestrians
  • Technology acceptance
  • Technology acceptance model
  • Theory of planned behaviour
  • Unified theory of acceptance and use of technology

Cite this