GLONASS–only FDMA+CDMA RTK: Performance and outlook

Safoora Zaminpardaz, Peter J.G. Teunissen, Amir Khodabandeh*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)
27 Downloads (Pure)


An assessment of standalone GLONASS RTK performance is provided using its FDMA and CDMA signals. The new integer-estimable GLONASS FDMA model (Teunissen 2019), which guarantees the integer-estimability of its ambiguities, is employed. We introduce the combined integer-estimable GLONASS FDMA+CDMA model and compare its strength against the FDMA model for instantaneous integer ambiguity resolution and positioning. Various combinations of GLONASS signals are considered including FDMA L1, FDMA+CDMA L1+L3, FDMA L1+L2 and FDMA+CDMA L1+L2+L3. To provide insight into the current RTK performance of GLONASS, we used observations of a short baseline to analyze the integer ambiguity resolution success rate and positioning precision, formally and empirically. To provide insight into the future RTK performance of GLONASS, we present a formal analysis of the integer ambiguity resolution success rate and ADOP, assuming that all the GLONASS satellites transmit FDMA L1, L2 and CDMA L3 signals. A formal analysis of standalone GLONASS ambiguity resolution based on current and future GLONASS constellation is then presented for different locations around the world.

Original languageEnglish
Article number96
Number of pages12
JournalGPS Solutions
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Code division multiple access (CDMA)
  • Frequency division multiple access (FDMA)
  • Integer ambiguity resolution
  • Integer estimability
  • Real-time kinematic (RTK) positioning


Dive into the research topics of 'GLONASS–only FDMA+CDMA RTK: Performance and outlook'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this