Granular Flow Modeling of Galvanized Steel Scrap Injection into the HIsarna Iron-Making Reactor

Ashkan Hosseini*, Evangelos Georgopoulos, Vinod Dihman, Johannes Hage, Koen Meijer, Christiaan Zeilstra, Erik Offerman, Yongxiang Yang

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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Galvanized steel scrap flow and injection into the HIsarna reactor are investigated using discrete element method (DEM). The scrap particle is fed into the reactor through an inclined chute and hits the slag surface where the zinc content is evaporated and solid particles melt. A DEM model is setup and validated using experimental data obtained from the exact plant-scale chute geometry and scrap particles. Using the DEM model, the effect of chute inclination, injection elevation, injection mode (batch and continuous), batch size, and flowrate on particle distribution and exerted pressure on the slag surface are investigated. It is found that continuous mode of injection is the most suitable method to increase the spread of particles and also to reduce the exerted pressure on the slag surface. Placing dent-like obstacles at the tip of the chute significantly increases the impact area, especially for batchwise injection, thus reducing force and pressure on the slag surface that minimizes the risk of liquid splash. Larger particle impact area is also beneficial to obtain higher zinc evaporation rate from particle surface and also to minimize the slag surface temperature disturbance.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2200193
Number of pages14
JournalSteel Research International
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • discrete element method
  • granular flow modeling
  • HIsarna iron production
  • steel scrap chute
  • steel scrap flowability


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