Growth of multi-layered graphene on molybdenum catalyst by solid phase reaction with amorphous carbon

Filiberto Ricciardella, Sten Vollebregt, Evgenia Kurganova, A.J.M. Giesbers, Majid Ahmadi, Pasqualina Maria Sarro

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
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A method to grow multi layers graphene (MLG) just by thermal annealing in an inert atmosphere is reported. A molybdenum (Mo) catalyst layer is used in combination with a solid amorphous carbon (a-C) source on top or below the Mo layer. The formation of MLG directly on top of the catalyst substrate surface is confirmed by Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, cross-section transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Growth of MLG on top of the Mo catalyst is demonstrated both with a-C below and above the Mo layer. The growth mechanism is attributed to the diffusion of a-C through the Mo layer and precipitation into the graphene at the surface, similar to the growth by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) on a Ni catalyst. The role of the inert Ar/H 2 atmosphere, carbon thickness, catalyst thickness, anneal time and anneal temperature are reported. Fast growth of MLG (5 min) at 915 °C is demonstrated. The quality of MLG prepared by thermal annealing is at least as good as that of MLG synthesized by CVD. The relevant achievements presented in this study make the proposed technique a promising alternative to CVD based MLG.

Original languageEnglish
Article number035012
Pages (from-to)1-11
Number of pages11
Journal2D Materials
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2019


  • amorphous carbon
  • catalyst annealing
  • chemical vapour deposition
  • grapheme
  • multi-layered graphene
  • solid state reaction

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