Heterogeneous engineering: Essential bridge implementing creative design

Frido Smulders*

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Conference proceedings/Edited volumeConference contributionScientificpeer-review

    1 Citation (Scopus)


    This paper connects design creativity to engineering activities as means for smooth implementation of creative concepts. It applies C-K design theory and the IDER-innovation model as lenses to investigate three case studies. The results point to engineering activities as operators to transform the undecidable concepts in the C-space to objects with a logical status in the K-space. Engineering (E) knowledge as validated objects in the K-space supports the transformation process. If existing E-knowledge is sufficient, then this resembles single loop learning. If concepts in the C-space are too different from earlier concepts, then new E-knowledge needs to be developed which resembles double loop learning. The research for developing new E-knowledge unfolds in a similar fashion. Tentative theoretical insights in the C-space are 'engineered' by validated research methods from the K-space. Further research needs to address the complexity of real-life socio-interactive situations. The paper shows that the engineering act in a heterogeneous manner is at least of equal importance for innovation as the creative design act.

    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationProceedings of the 21st International Conference on Engineering Design (ICED17)
    Subtitle of host publicationHuman Behaviour in Design
    EditorsA. Maier, S. Škec, H. Kim, M. Kokkolaras, J. Oehmen, G. Fadel, F. Salustri, M. van der Loos
    PublisherThe Design Society
    Number of pages10
    ISBN (Electronic)978-1-904670-96-4
    Publication statusPublished - 2017
    EventICED17: 21st International Conference on Engineering Design - Vancouver, Canada
    Duration: 21 Aug 201725 Aug 2017

    Publication series

    NumberDS 87-8
    ISSN (Electronic)2220-4342




    • Creativity
    • Design methodology
    • Engineering
    • Implementation
    • Innovation

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