High-Mobility Hydrogenated Fluorine-Doped Indium Oxide Film for Passivating Contacts c-Si Solar Cells

Can Han*, Luana Mazzarella, Yifeng Zhao, Guangtao Yang, Paul Procel, Martijn Tijssen, Ana Montes, Olindo Isabella, Miro Zeman, More Authors

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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Broadband transparent conductive oxide layers with high electron mobility (μe) are essential to further enhance crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cell performances. Although metallic cation-doped In2O3 thin films with high μe (>60 cm2 V-1 s-1) have been extensively investigated, the research regarding anion doping is still under development. In particular, fluorine-doped indium oxide (IFO) shows promising optoelectrical properties; however, they have not been tested on c-Si solar cells with passivating contacts. Here, we investigate the properties of hydrogenated IFO (IFO:H) films processed at low substrate temperature and power density by varying the water vapor pressure during deposition. The optimized IFO:H shows a remarkably high μe of 87 cm2 V-1 s-1, a carrier density of 1.2 × 1020 cm-3, and resistivity of 6.2 × 10-4 ω cm. Then, we analyzed the compositional, structural, and optoelectrical properties of the optimal IFO:H film. The high quality of the layer was confirmed by the low Urbach energy of 197 meV, compared to 444 meV obtained on the reference indium tin oxide. We implemented IFO:H into different front/back-contacted solar cells with passivating contacts processed at high and low temperatures, obtaining a significant short-circuit current gain of 1.53 mA cm-2. The best solar cell shows a conversion efficiency of 21.1%.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)45586-45595
Number of pages10
JournalACS Applied Materials and Interfaces
Issue number49
Publication statusPublished - 2019

Bibliographical note



  • electron mobility
  • hydrogenated fluorine-doped indium oxide (IFO:H)
  • passivating contacts
  • silicon heterojunction (SHJ)
  • transparent conductive oxide (TCO)


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