We present a robust droplet-based device, which enables the fractionation of ultralow flow rate nanoflow liquid chromatography (nano-LC) eluate streams at high frequencies and high peak resolution. This is achieved by directly interfacing the separation column to a micro T-junction, where the eluate stream is compartmentalized into picoliter droplets. This immediate compartmentalization prevents peak dispersion during eluate transport and conserves the chromatographic performance. Subsequently, nanoliter eluate fractions are collected at a rate of one fraction per second on a high-density microarray to retain the separation with high temporal resolution. Chromatographic separations of up to 45 min runtime can thus be archived on a single microarray possessing 2700 sample spots. The performance of this device is demonstrated by fractionating the separation of a tryptic digest of a known protein mixture onto the microarray chip and subsequently analyzing the sample archive using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). Resulting peak widths are found to be significantly reduced compared to standard continuous flow spotting technologies as well as in comparison to a conventional nano-LC-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry interface. Moreover, we demonstrate the advantage of our high-definition nanofractionation device by applying two different MALDI matrices to all collected fractions in an alternating fashion. Since the information that is obtained from a MALDI-MS measurement depends on the choice of MALDI matrix, we can extract complementary information from neighboring spots containing almost identical composition but different matrices.