Highly anisotropic mechanical and optical properties of 2D layered As2S3 membranes

Makars Šiškins*, Martin Lee, Farbod Alijani, Mark R. Van Blankenstein, Dejan Davidovikj, Herre S.J. Van Der Zant, Peter G. Steeneken

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

50 Citations (Scopus)
138 Downloads (Pure)


Two-dimensional (2D) materials with strong in-plane anisotropy are of interest for enabling orientation-dependent, frequency-tunable, optomechanical devices. However, black phosphorus (bP), the 2D material with the largest anisotropy to date, is unstable as it degrades in air. In this work we show that As2S3 is an interesting alternative, with a similar anisotropy to bP, while at the same time having a much higher chemical stability. We probe the mechanical and optical anisotropy in As2S3 by three distinct angular-resolved experimental methods: Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and resonance frequency analysis. Using a dedicated angle-resolved AFM force-deflection method, an in-plane anisotropy factor of EaEc=1.7 is found in the Young's modulus of As2S3 with Ea-axis = 79.1 ± 10.1 GPa and Ec-axis = 47.2 ± 7.9 GPa. The high mechanical anisotropy is also shown to cause up to 65% difference in the resonance frequency, depending on crystal orientation and aspect ratio of membranes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)10845-10851
JournalACS Nano
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 2019


  • 2D materials
  • arsenic trisulfide (AsS)
  • mechanical anisotropy
  • multimode resonances
  • nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS)
  • Raman spectroscopy


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