Holistic computational design within additive manufacturing through topology optimization combined with multiphysics multi-scale materials and process modelling

Mohamad Bayat*, Olga Zinovieva, Federico Ferrari, Can Ayas, Matthijs Langelaar, Jon Spangenberg, Roozbeh Salajeghe, Konstantinos Poulios, Sankhya Mohanty, Ole Sigmund, Jesper Hattel

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)
18 Downloads (Pure)


Additive manufacturing (AM) processes have proven to be a perfect match for topology optimization (TO), as they are able to realize sophisticated geometries in a unique layer-by-layer manner. From a manufacturing viewpoint, however, there is a significant likelihood of process-related defects within complex geometrical features designed by TO. This is because TO seldomly accounts for process constraints and conditions and is typically perceived as a purely geometrical design tool. On the other hand, advanced AM process simulations have shown their potential as reliable tools capable of predicting various process-related conditions and defects. Thus far, geometry design by topology optimization and multiphysics manufacturing simulations have been viewed as two mostly separate paradigms, whereas one should really conceive them as one holistic computational design tool. More specifically, AM process models provide input to physics-based TO, where consequently, not only the designed component will function optimally, but also will have near-to-minimum manufacturing defects. In this regard, we aim at giving a thorough overview of holistic computational design tool concepts applied within AM. First, literature on TO for performance optimization is reviewed and then the most recent developments within physics-based TO techniques related to AM are covered. Process simulations play a pivotal role in the latter type of TO and serve as additional constraints on top of the primary end-user optimization objectives. As a natural consequence of this, a comprehensive and detailed review of non-metallic and metallic additive manufacturing simulations is performed, where the latter is divided into micro-scale and deposition-scale simulations. Material multi-scaling techniques, which are central to the process-structure-property relationships, are reviewed next, followed by a subsection on process multi-scaling techniques, which are reduced-order versions of advanced process models and are incorporable into physics-based TO due to their lower computational requirements. Finally the paper is concluded and suggestions for further research paths discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Article number101129
Number of pages117
JournalProgress in Materials Science
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • Additive manufacturing
  • Multiphysics simulation
  • Process multi-scaling
  • Process-structure-property
  • Topology optimization


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