The understanding of quantum mechanics enabled the development of technology such as transistors and has been the foundation of today’s information age. Actively using quantum mechanics to build quantum technology may cause a second revolution in handling information. However, to execute meaningful algorithms, largescale quantum computers have to be built. Such systems are constructed from many qubits, the quantum version of the classical bit. While exciting progress is being made across a range of different qubit platforms, achieving the radical scalability that is necessary to build a largescale processor could be a roadblock. Huge challenges are put on reproducibility, inand output connectivity and material quality. Qubits based on the spins of electrons and holes confined in semiconductor quantum dots may have an important advantage in constructing quantum processors. This platform can profit from the advanced semiconductor industry that was responsible for the first computing revolution. Group IV semiconductors such as silicon and germanium have a high compatibility with industrial semiconductor manufacturing and contain stable isotopes with zero nuclear spin. The materials can be isotopically purified and serve as excellent hosts for spins with long quantum coherence. In Chapter 3 we present quantum dot arrays in silicon metaloxidesemiconductor (SiMOS), strained silicon (Si/SiGe) and strained germanium (Ge/SiGe). A nearly identical integration scheme based on an overlapping gate structure can be used to define quantum dots in each platform. Each platform has its own opportunities, which are carefully assessed. By employing charge sensing we confirm that all quantum dots can be depleted to the singleelectron regime. We compare capacitive crosstalk and find it to be the smallest in SiMOS, relevant for the tuning of quantum dot arrays. Using this crossplatform integration, we can study qubits in each platform with minimal overhead. Long coherence times, excellent singlequbit gate fidelities and twoqubit logic have been demonstrated with SiMOS spin qubits, making it one of the leading platforms for quantum information processing. However, due to the high disorder at the Si/SiO2 interface compared to Ge/SiGe and Si/SiGe interface, quantum dots defined in SiMOS are small and achieving sufficient control over single electrons has been a long standing challenge. In Chapter 5 we show experiments on a double quantum dot that can be isolated from its reservoir. We demonstrate a tunable tunnel coupling between single electrons up to 13 GHz and tunable tunnel rates down to below 1 Hz. These results mark an important step towards the required degree of control over the location of and coupling between quantum dots, necessary for the operation of a large array.
|Qualification||Doctor of Philosophy|
|Award date||9 Sep 2021|
|Publication status||Published - 2021|
- quantum computation
- quantum dots
- spin qubits