Human-centered XAI: Developing design patterns for explanations of clinical decision support systems

Tjeerd A.J. Schoonderwoerd, Wiard Jorritsma, Mark A. Neerincx, Karel Van Den Bosch

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

28 Citations (Scopus)
67 Downloads (Pure)


Much of the research on eXplainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI) has centered on providing transparency of machine learning models. More recently, the focus on human-centered approaches to XAI has increased. Yet, there is a lack of practical methods and examples on the integration of human factors into the development processes of AI-generated explanations that humans prove to uptake for better performance. This paper presents a case study of an application of a human-centered design approach for AI-generated explanations. The approach consists of three components: Domain analysis to define the concept & context of explanations, Requirements elicitation & assessment to derive the use cases & explanation requirements, and the consequential Multi-modal interaction design & evaluation to create a library of design patterns for explanations. In a case study, we adopt the DoReMi-approach to design explanations for a Clinical Decision Support System (CDSS) for child health. In the requirements elicitation & assessment, a user study with experienced paediatricians uncovered what explanations the CDSS should provide. In the interaction design & evaluation, a second user study tested the consequential interaction design patterns. This case study provided a first set of user requirements and design patterns for an explainable decision support system in medical diagnosis, showing how to involve expert end users in the development process and how to develop, more or less, generic solutions for general design problems in XAI.

Original languageEnglish
Article number102684
Pages (from-to)1-25
Number of pages25
JournalInternational Journal of Human Computer Studies
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Causability
  • Clinical decision making
  • Decision-support system
  • Design patterns
  • Explainability
  • Explainable AI
  • Human-centered design
  • User study


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