Human Threshold Model for Perceiving Changes in System Dynamics

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

17 Downloads (Pure)


Limitations of a haptic device can cause distortions of the force feedback it presents. Just-noticeable difference (JND) in system dynamics is important for creating transparent haptic interaction. Based on the previous work, this article presents a unified model that extends the existing JND rule. Our approach projects the JNDs in the mechanical properties of a second-order mass-spring-damper system onto the real and imaginary components of the system's frequency response function (FRF). We discuss the results of two experiments and show that the JNDs obtained for both the real and imaginary components can be expressed as the same fraction of, and thus are proportional to, the magnitude of the total system's FRF. Furthermore, the findings are generalized to cases where the system's dynamics order is different than two. What results is a unified model that accurately describes the threshold for changes in human perception of any linear system dynamics with only two dimensions: the real and imaginary axes in the complex plane.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9099322
Pages (from-to)444-453
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Transactions on Human-Machine Systems
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2020


  • Damping
  • Difference threshold
  • Force
  • Frequency response
  • frequency response function (FRF)
  • Haptic interfaces
  • haptics
  • just-noticeable difference (JND)
  • Manipulators
  • mass-spring-damper systems
  • System dynamics
  • Weber's law
  • Weber's law

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Human Threshold Model for Perceiving Changes in System Dynamics'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this