Hybrid AC/DC Transmission Expansion Planning Considering HVAC to HVDC Conversion under Renewable Penetration

Mojtaba Moradi-Sepahvand, Turaj Amraee*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

27 Citations (Scopus)


In this paper, a dynamic (i.e., multi-year) hybrid model is presented for Transmission Expansion Planning (TEP) utilizing the High Voltage Alternating Current (HVAC) and multi terminal Voltage Sourced Converter (VSC)-based High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) alternatives. In addition to new HVAC and HVDC lines, the possibility of converting existing HVAC transmission lines to HVDC lines is considered in the proposed model. High shares of renewable resources are integrated into the proposed hybrid AC/DC TEP model. Due to the intermittency of renewable resources, the planning of large-scale Energy Storage (ES) devices is considered. In order to accurately estimate the total TEP costs and hence capturing the scenarios of load and renewable generation uncertainty, using a clustering approach, each year of the planning horizon is replaced with four representative days. The proposed model is formulated as a Mixed-Integer Linear Programming (MILP) problem. Using Benders Decomposition (BD) algorithm, the proposed model is decomposed into a Master investment problem to handle the decision variables, and Sub-problems to check the feasibility of master problem solution and optimize the operation and ES investment cost. Three test systems are used as case studies to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed hybrid AC/DC TEP model.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9072436
Pages (from-to)579-591
Number of pages13
JournalIEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Energy Storage
  • HVAC to HVDC Conversion
  • Hybrid HVAC/HVDC Network
  • Optimization
  • Renewable Resources
  • Transmission Expansion Planning


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