Hybrid intervention scheme-based optimization algorithm for real-time management of reactive power resources

Deesh Dileep*, Jose Rueda Torres, Sander Franke, Peter Palensky

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


This article introduces a Hybrid Intervention Scheme Based Optimization (HIBO) algorithm solving an Optimal Reactive Power Management (ORPM) problem in real-time using a Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) solver. The ORPM problem presented here contains a linear objective function containing four objectives separated using a set of static penalty factors for each area. The non-linear optimization problem has been assumed linear by localizing the search for solution, this is done by introducing a penalty on the change from the original state or the base case scenario. Thereby, optimizing the non-linear ORPM in linear steps makes it a fast solver for small changes in power system state. A contingency analysis (for N-1 voltage violations) is included for ensuring the safety and reliability of the power system. The results are used to update the ORPM problem or stop if the system is secure. The optimization variables used to represent transformer taps and shunt device switches are handled as discrete integers and remaining variables as continuous real numbers. The intervention scheme, objectives and constraints used in the HIBO have been derived through surveys conducted at a transmission system control center and are supported using literature. Validation of the HIBO algorithm was performed on the Dutch transmission network model after dividing it into four regional areas. Convergence characteristics of the HIBO algorithm are compared using results. From the results, it is concluded that the HIBO algorithm is a competitive optimization solver, suitable for deployment in the secondary voltage control scheme within system operations domain for transmission system operators.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)737-748
Number of pages12
JournalAutomatisierungstechnik: automatisierung Prozess
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 27 Nov 2017


  • Dutch transmission network
  • Intervention scheme based optimization
  • MILP solver
  • reactive power management
  • system operations


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