Hybrid Tunable Magnet Actuator: Design of a Linearized Force-Flux Tunable Magnet Actuator

William B. Hoekwater, Endre Ronaes, Hassan HosseinNia

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Recent studies have shown that tunable magnets (soft permanent magnets) can significantly reduce Joule heating in electromagnetic actuators. To achieve high motion accuracy and repeatability, this article proposes a novel actuator design with a linearized force-flux relation. In prior designs of variable reluctance tunable magnet actuators, the force and flux are related quadratically via a C-shaped actuator. Hybrid tunable magnet actuators based on biased fluxes are developed using lumped parameter models. Using finite element analysis, it is shown that the force-flux relation is symmetric linear around the mid position depending on the magnetic flux direction in the magnet. Within a position range of ±500 μm and a force range of ±20 N, the linear fit produces a negligible error of 0.08 N. Finally, this linear relationship is validated with a 0.03-N error in an experimental setup.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5073-5082
JournalIEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2024

Bibliographical note

Green Open Access added to TU Delft Institutional Repository 'You share, we take care!' - Taverne project https://www.openaccess.nl/en/you-share-we-take-care
Otherwise as indicated in the copyright section: the publisher is the copyright holder of this work and the author uses the Dutch legislation to make this work public.


  • Actuators
  • Force
  • Magnetic circuits
  • Magnetic flux
  • Magnetic hysteresis
  • Magnetic separation
  • Magnetomechanical effects
  • Saturation magnetization
  • tunable magnets
  • variable reluctance actuator


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