We investigate the average drag, lift, and torque on static assemblies of capsule-like particles of aspect ratio 4. The performed simulations are from Stokes flow to high Reynolds numbers (0.1 ≤ Re ≤ 1,000) at different solids volume fraction (0.1 ≤ ɛs ≤ 0.5). Individual particle forces as a function of the incident angle ϕ with respect to the average flow are scattered. However, the average particle force as a function of ϕ is found to be independent of mutual particle orientations for all but the highest volume fractions. On average, a sine-squared scaling of drag and sine-cosine scaling of lift holds for static multiparticle systems of elongated particles. For a packed bed, our findings can be utilized to compute the pressure drop with knowledge of the particle-orientation distribution, and the average particle drag at ϕ = 0° and 90°. We propose closures for average forces to be used in Euler–Lagrange simulations of particles of aspect ratio 4.
- drag, lift, and torque correlations
- nonspherical particles
- particle assemblies