The current focus on the massive CO2 reduction highlights the need for the rapid development of technology for the production, storage, transportation and distribution of renewable energy. In addition to electricity, we need other forms of energy carriers that are more suitable for energy storage and transportation. Hydrogen is one of the main candidates for this purpose, since it can be produced from solar or wind energy and then stored; once needed, it can be converted back to electricity using fuel cells. Another important aspect of future energy systems is sector coupling, where different sectors, e.g. mobility and energy, work together to provide better services. In such an integrated system, electric vehicles – both battery and hydrogen-based fuel cell – can provide, when parked, electricity services, such as backup power and balancing; when driving they produce no emissions. In this paper we present the concept design and energy management of such an integrated energy and mobility system in a real-life environment at the Shell Technology Centre in Amsterdam. Our results show that storage using hydrogen and salt caverns is much cheaper than using large battery storage systems. We also show that the integration of electric vehicles into the electricity network is technically and economically feasible and that they can provide a flexible energy buffer. Ultimately, the results of this study show that using both electricity and hydrogen as energy carriers can create a more flexible, reliable and cheaper energy system at an office building.
- Hydrogen-based energy system
- Integrated energy and mobility system
- Optimal scheduling
- Techno-economic analysis