Hysteresis Modeling of Robotic Catheters based on Long Short-Term Memory Network for Improved Environment Reconstruction

Di Wu, Yao Zhang, Mouloud Ourak, Kenan Niu, Jenny Dankelman, Emmanuel B. Vander Poorten

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)
24 Downloads (Pure)


Catheters are increasingly being used to tackle problems in the cardiovascular system. However, positioning precision of the catheter tip is negatively affected by hysteresis. To ensure tissue damage due to imprecise positioning is avoided, hysteresis is to be understood and compensated for. This work investigates the feasibility to model hysteresis with a Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) network. A bench-top setup containing a catheter distal segment was developed for model evaluation.The LSTM was first tested using four groups of test datasets containing diverse patterns. To compare with the LSTM, a Deadband Rate-Dependent Prandtl-Ishlinskii (DRDPI) model and a Support Vector Regression (SVR) model were established. The results demonstrated that the LSTM is capable of predicting the tip bending angle with sub-degree precision. The LSTM outperformed the DRDPI model and the SVR model by 60.1% and 36.0%, respectively, in arbitrarily varying signals. Next, the LSTM was further validated in a 3D reconstruction experiment using Forward-Looking Optical Coherence Tomography (FL-OCT). The results revealed that the LSTM was able to accurately reconstruct the environment with a reconstruction error below 0.25 mm. Overall, the proposed LSTM enabled precise free-space control of a robotic catheter in the presence of severe hysteresis. The LSTM predicted the catheter tip response precisely based on proximal input pressure, minimizing the need to install sensors at the catheter tip for localization.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2106-2113
JournalIEEE Robotics and Automation Letters
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2021

Bibliographical note

Green Open Access added to TU Delft Institutional Repository 'You share, we take care!' - Taverne project https://www.openaccess.nl/en/you-share-we-take-care

Otherwise as indicated in the copyright section: the publisher is the copyright holder of this work and the author uses the Dutch legislation to make this work public.


  • Catheters
  • coronary artery disease
  • Hysteresis
  • hysteresis
  • Logic gates
  • LSTM
  • modeling
  • Muscles
  • pneumatic artificial muscle
  • robotic catheter
  • Robots
  • Sensors
  • Solid modeling


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