Idealized 3D auxetic mechanical metamaterial: An analytical, numerical, and experimental study

Naeim Ghavidelnia, Mahdi Bodaghi, Reza Hedayati

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)
3 Downloads (Pure)


Mechanical metamaterials are man-made rationally-designed structures that present un-precedented mechanical properties not found in nature. One of the most well-known mechanical metamaterials is auxetics, which demonstrates negative Poisson’s ratio (NPR) behavior that is very beneficial in several industrial applications. In this study, a specific type of auxetic metamaterial structure namely idealized 3D re-entrant structure is studied analytically, numerically, and experi-mentally. The noted structure is constructed of three types of struts—one loaded purely axially and two loaded simultaneously flexurally and axially, which are inclined and are spatially defined by angles θ and φ. Analytical relationships for elastic modulus, yield stress, and Poisson’s ratio of the 3D re-entrant unit cell are derived based on two well-known beam theories namely Euler–Bernoulli and Timoshenko. Moreover, two finite element approaches one based on beam elements and one based on volumetric elements are implemented. Furthermore, several specimens are additively manufactured (3D printed) and tested under compression. The analytical results had good agree-ment with the experimental results on the one hand and the volumetric finite element model results on the other hand. Moreover, the effect of various geometrical parameters on the mechanical properties of the structure was studied, and the results demonstrated that angle θ (related to tension-dominated struts) has the highest influence on the sign of Poisson’s ratio and its extent, while angle φ (related to compression-dominated struts) has the lowest influence on the Poisson’s ratio. Never-theless, the compression-dominated struts (defined by angle φ) provide strength and stiffness for the structure. The results also demonstrated that the structure could have zero Poisson’s ratio for a specific range of θ and φ angles. Finally, a lightened 3D re-entrant structure is introduced, and its results are compared to those of the idealized 3D re-entrant structure.

Original languageEnglish
Article number993
Pages (from-to)1-36
Number of pages36
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • 3D printing
  • 3D re-entrant
  • Auxetics
  • Mechanical metamaterial
  • Negative Poisson’s ratio


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