Identification of a task-based implementation path for unmanned autonomous ships

Carmen Kooij*, Robert Hekkenberg

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)
35 Downloads (Pure)


Autonomous and unmanned shipping are currently hot topics in the maritime industry. However, there are many different views on how the ultimate goal of an unmanned, autonomous ship will be reached. On any given ship, a large range of tasks is performed every day, each of which need to be replaced in such a way that no human presence is required on board. In this article, different possible combinations of tasks to be replaced are explored systematically, leading to an overview of the most beneficial combinations of tasks to replace together and a logical sequence in which to replace them. This leads to a plausible implementation path from low-manned ships towards fully unmanned autonomous ships.

Original languageEnglish
Number of pages17
JournalMaritime Policy and Management
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • autonomous ships
  • crew reduction
  • low-manned ships
  • manning
  • Unmanned ships


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