Imaging PPG for In Vivo Human Tissue Perfusion Assessment during Surgery

Marco Lai, Stefan D. van der Stel*, Harald C. Groen, Mark van Gastel, Koert F.D. Kuhlmann, Theo J.M. Ruers, Benno H.W. Hendriks

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)
20 Downloads (Pure)


Surgical excision is the golden standard for treatment of intestinal tumors. In this surgical procedure, inadequate perfusion of the anastomosis can lead to postoperative complications, such as anastomotic leakages. Imaging photoplethysmography (iPPG) can potentially provide objective and real-time feedback of the perfusion status of tissues. This feasibility study aims to evaluate an iPPG acquisition system during intestinal surgeries to detect the perfusion levels of the microvasculature tissue bed in different perfusion conditions. This feasibility study assesses three patients that underwent resection of a portion of the small intestine. Data was acquired from fully perfused, non-perfused and anastomosis parts of the intestine during different phases of the surgical procedure. Strategies for limiting motion and noise during acquisition were implemented. iPPG perfusion maps were successfully extracted from the intestine microvasculature, demonstrating that iPPG can be successfully used for detecting perturbations and perfusion changes in intestinal tissues during surgery. This study provides proof of concept for iPPG to detect changes in organ perfusion levels.

Original languageEnglish
Article number94
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of Imaging
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • imaging photoplethysmography
  • intestinal surgery
  • intraoperative perfusion assessment
  • iPPG
  • optical technology


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