Impact and mitigation of neglecting PPP-RTK correctional uncertainty

Dimitrios Psychas*, Amir Khodabandeh, Peter J.G. Teunissen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)
33 Downloads (Pure)


The corrections needed to realize integer ambiguity resolution-enabled precise point positioning (PPP-RTK) at a single-receiver user are often treated as if they are deterministic quantities. The present contribution aims to study and analyze the effect the neglected uncertainty of these corrections, which are subject to time delay, has on the PPP-RTK user ambiguity resolution and positioning performance. Next to the analyses of the estimation results, we emphasize their quality information and show to what extent the assumed positioning precision that the user is provided with differs from the minimum-variance counterpart under an incorrectly specified user stochastic model. We develop and present two alternatives to the fully populated error variance matrix of the PPP-RTK corrections that the user can reconstruct with limited information from the provider so as to properly weigh his corrected data and achieve close-to-optimal performance for high latencies. Supported by numerical results, our study demonstrates that the alternative variance matrices are sufficient enough for the user to obtain improved instantaneous PPP-RTK performance and a realistic precision description in the positioning domain.

Original languageEnglish
Article number33
Pages (from-to)1-15
Number of pages15
JournalGPS Solutions
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2022

Bibliographical note

Green Open Access added to TU Delft Institutional Repository 'You share, we take care!' - Taverne project

Otherwise as indicated in the copyright section: the publisher is the copyright holder of this work and the author uses the Dutch legislation to make this work public.


  • Best linear unbiased estimation (BLUE)
  • Global navigation satellite systems (GNSS)
  • Integer ambiguity resolution (IAR)
  • Latency
  • PPP-RTK correctional uncertainty
  • Precision description


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